top of page



The Union Cabinet, Government of India approved the National Education Policy and it was made public on 29th July 2020. This education policy replaces the old National Policy on Education brought in 1986. The National Education Policy, 2020 is based on five pillars of Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability, and Accountability. This policy will definitely help in improving the quality of education in India at both schools and in higher education. It will provide enough resources to students at all levels to develop their skills and compete at a global level.

Some important highlights of National Education Policy-2020 are:


Providing Universal Access at all Levels of School Education - Apart from imparting school education to all at pre-school to secondary, the government aims to bring nearly 2 crore school dropouts back into mainstream education. This process will be facilitated by imparting education to students through both formal and informal mode. It will be achieved by various means such as (not limited to):

i. Providing infrastructure support.

ii. Developing innovative education centers.

iii. Tracking of students and accessing their learning levels.

iv. Open learning for classes 3, 5, and 8 through open schools and NIOS.

v. Providing secondary education equivalent to 10th and 12th.

Change in Existing Curricular and Pedagogical Structure – The existing 10+2 structure of school education is to be changed to 5+3+3+4 structure which will be in sync with age groups of 3-8, 8-11, 11-14 and 14-18 years respectively. An important advantage of this system would be to bring the children in the age group of 3-6 years in the purview of education through Anganwadi and pre-school.

Providing Education of/in Various Languages – The new policy laid stressed on the language of teaching to be in mother tongue/regional language at least till 5th grade and preferable till 8th grade. Sanskrit will be offered to all the students including school and higher education as an OPTIONAL language as a part of three language systems. Several foreign languages will also be offered at the secondary level. Apart from this, a standardized Indian Sign Language will be defined for the students with hearing impairment.

Reforms in Assessment System – The existing summative assessment system is to be changed to a regular assessment which will be based on the competency of students along with their learning and will test their skills, critical thinking to provide a measure of their overall development. The school examinations will be conducted in 3rd, 5th, and 8th grades. However, the board exams will be conducted in 10th and 12th but it would be redesigned which will aim at holistic development.

Efficient Process for Recruitment of Teachers – Recruitment of teachers will be made transparent and efficient. Their promotions will be made on the basis of merit. Apart from this, they would be provided periodic performance appraisals and the opportunity to become educational administrators. A common standard for teachers will be designed in the name of National Professional Standards for Teachers by 2022 that will help in ascertaining the quality of teachers.

Setting up Standards and Accreditation for School Education – Through NEP-2020, a separate system for policymaking, regulation, operations, and academic matters is envisaged. This will be achieved by setting up an independent State School Authority (SSSA). Apart from this, the SCERT will develop a School Quality Assessment and Accreditation Framework in consultation with associated stakeholders.


With the NEP-2020, the government aims to increase the Gross Enrollment Ratio in higher education to 50% by 2035. The GER of 2018 stands at 26.3%. To achieve this milestone 3.5 crore new seats will be created in various higher educational institutes including vocational education.

1. Through the NEP-2020, a reformed Under Graduate education will be imparted with flexible curricula, various combinations of subjects, integration of vocational education, and multiple entry and exit points. UG degree will be of a 3 to 4 years period with multiple exit options.

i. Certificate after completion of 1 year.

ii. Advanced Diploma after 2 years period.

iii. Bachelor’s degree after 3 years.

iv. Bachelors with Research after 4 years.

2. Apart from this, an Academic Bank of Credit is to be established for storing the credits earned by students digitally from different HEI’s and then these can be transferred and counted for the realization of minimum credits required for awarding a final degree.

Also, Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities will be established to provide quality multidisciplinary education in the country which will be at par with global standards. A new The National Research Foundation will be created which will serve as an apex body to foster, monitor, and create quality research capacity across all higher education.

3. The affiliation of college is to be phased out systematically in years. By doing this all the institutions will enjoy autonomy and develop themselves into a degree-granting college or a college of a university. This will help in bringing forward a range of institutions such as Research intensive universities, teaching-intensive Universities, and Autonomous Degree-granting Colleges.

4. Through the NEP, it is aimed to provide a quality faculty by having a transparent faculty recruitment system, providing the freedom to design their curricula, providing various incentives with respect to their excellence, and providing an opportunity to their career growth through their movement to institutional leadership.

5. Open and distance learning will be made more efficient to fulfill the aim of achieving 50% GER in higher education. Various measures will be taken to make these courses at par with classroom programs.

6. Proper and dedicated infrastructure for digital/online education will be established. The establishing of a dedicated unit for this purpose will help in catering to the needs of both school and higher educations.

7. A single body named Higher Education Commission of India will be set up for entire higher education leaving medical and legal education. The HECI will work under four independent sectors:

i. National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) for regulation.

ii. General Education Council (GEC) for setting up standards.

iii. Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) for funding.

iv. National Accreditation Council (NAC) for accreditation.

PDF document of NEP (Click Here)

How will the NEP-2020 impact future education in India???

The new National Education Policy was overdue for a long time now considering the dilapidated state of India’s education. It will certainly help a lot in bringing it at par with the set global standards. The foresight of achieving 100% GER in school education and 50% GER in higher education by 2030 and 2035 is laudable. Through the three language system in school education and in higher education, the government once again laid stressed on the importance of being multilingual. It also aims to promote mother tongue and regional languages. This will promote the use of regional languages and also make the learning process easy for a lot of students. Offering Sanskrit as an OPTIONAL language will aim to maintain the culture of our country.

All the important highlights mentioned in the NEP be it with the regulation of schools and higher education, maintaining the quality of faculty and teachers appointed in their respective domains through a transparent process or focusing on the research in the country are the welcome steps mentioned in the NEP. With this policy, the government aims to improve and promote the digital infrastructure and e-learning in the country. This is going to be very critical in the future teaching-learning process, keeping into account the current scenarios generated due to the current pandemic. Hopefully, the parents will also understand the importance of this process and digitalization and consider it as a method of learning that is at par with the classroom learning process and not assume it as some joke.

The proposed credit-based recognition of MOOC’s and the establishment of a credit bank will come out as an important game-changer in the Indian education system moving forward. The credit-based recognition of MOOCs will make online learning more popular and will certainly improve its quality. The students who invest their time in such courses will now get the benefit of the course as it will be recognized. Also, the establishment of a credit bank will help the students to accumulate the required credit for obtaining the final degree.

The most important step of this NEP is with regard to the increasing expenditure on the education sector. Through this policy, the government aims to increase the expenditure up to 6% of the GDP as opposed to 4.6% of GDP that is spent currently. Also, the aim to achieve 100% adult and youth literacy is a welcome step and will help in bringing the education level of Indians at par with the global standards. Although the National Education Policy has a lot to offer to the education of the country, the time frame in which it is implemented and the efficiency with which it should be implemented to obtain most benefits out of it still remains to be seen.

  • Writer's pictureSulakshya Gaur

Migrants are one of the important driving wheels of the Indian Economy. India’s Construction industry, Manufacturing, transportation sectors are major employers of these workers and it is because of them these sectors keep on moving. Although, they play an important role and contribute towards India’s growth, very little is being done for their well-being. The term migrant workers have long been associated with the people moving from rural to urban areas. But, if one goes into the detail of the entire migration process and migrant workers, a different scenario also comes out. A data given by National sample Survey in 2007-08 revealed that about 28.3% of India’s workforce comprises of migrant workers. According to the census of 2011, there were 454 million migrants in the country which rose by 139 million from 315 million in 2001. The association of migrant workers with the movement of individuals from rural to urban areas might be because it takes around 22.1% of the share of all the migrants. But a detailed study of the data presented by the Report of The Working Group of Migration under the aegis of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation presents a different picture. The migration of people from rural to rural areas accounted for 47.4% and was followed by urban to urban migration at 22.6% (according to the census, 2011).

These rural to urban migrants, who work mostly in unorganized sectors were out of work and money in their new home during the nationwide lockdown, thanks to Corona Virus. As the period of lockdown increased, the patience of these workers suffered a major jolt. The immediate result of this was, various clashes with security personnel’s in different parts of the country and this resulted in the demands of bringing back them to their native places. Indian railways started plying special trains with the name of ‘Shramik Express’ to ferry stranded people back to their home.

The homecoming of these workers will present their employer states with a crunch of the labor force and will in turn adversely impact the various industries which depend on them. Karnataka and Haryana government even requested the workers to stay and avoid traveling to their native places. But with the chances of industries to start up soon looking bleak and further distress faced by them with respect to food and money, they remained adamant to their demands. The challenges faced by their native states are also not less. With the coming back of people in large numbers from various COVID hotspots, they face an additional risk of preventing the spread of disease.


With the spread of disease and the implementation of lockdown, the ferrying of workers was a very commendable step that was undertaken by the government. However, the time they took to reach this decision can still be debated. The people blaming the states and central government for delay in evacuating them need to understand that the parent state of these workers need to have a proper infrastructure in place to cope up with the sudden influx of people in large numbers, and this infrastructure is not developed in a day when the entire country is already facing various shortages. The problems with the employer states will be visible when the lockdown is lifted and all activities will start taking place gradually. They will face labor shortage in running their industries and projects and getting the heartbroken labors back won’t be an easy task. For this, they will have to provide some incentives to attract and provide a comfortable environment for them by winning their trust. The states who are bringing them back need to be ready and put in detailed measures to prevent the spread of disease in their states and most importantly to the rural areas they will go back. Most importantly, people need to stop stereotyping the migrant workers with people who move from rural to urban areas in search of better jobs or other facilities. This is a small way to give them respect, as they are an important lot who work for uplifting India’s economy.


3) Report of The Working Group on Migration, Published by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation in January 2017.

The lockdowns enforced to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 certainly helped to contain the disease to an extent, but it had caused severe effects in countries’ economies worldwide and India is no different. The country went on to total lockdown on 25th March which was later extended to 3rd May to further contain the speed of spreading of COVID-19. In most parts, the enforced lockdown has shown its positive results too, but with its benefits, it has and will present a number of challenges towards various sectors and economy. One among them is the construction sector which had already been facing difficult times as its growth was only accounted by a change in growth percentage of 4.7% in 2019-20 as compared to 12.2% for 2018-19 [1].

Detailed Trend

As per the Press note on Second advance estimates of National income 2019-20 and Quarterly estimates of Gross domestic product for the third quarter (Q3) of 2019-20 published by MoSPI, which presented a downward rate of growth in 2019-20 as compared to 2018-19 (see Table).

A slow rate of growth would further reduce due to the lockdown as the construction companies gain a major portion of their annual revenue during January- March Quarters.

Although, with an aim to start the economy allowed some relaxations in the non-hotspots zones in relation to construction works but with a strict ban of travel of labourers, where work is done within the limits of Municipal Corporation, in rural areas outside the limits of municipal corporations, but these works will also face problems related to unavailability of the labour force due to their migration back home.

Table: Percentage change of GVA at basic Prices in Construction Industry

Future after Lockdown

The construction industry would face a major challenge of availability of labour force immediately even when the lockdown is lifted and secondly, a shortage in the availability of raw materials as most of the industrial units have been idle during this time. The financial misery would also become pertinent because of the dainty economic condition set in due to this pandemic. The government though time and again during this lockdown has come out with a number of relief measures and financial package, but the effect this disease has caused worldwide cannot be easily erased and it has caused a major dent in growth prospects of construction industry and the entire country at large.


1. Press note on Second Advance Estimates of National Income 2019-20 and Quarterly Estimates of Gross Domestic Product for the Third Quarter (Q3) of 2019-20 published by National Statistical Office Ministry OF Statistics & Programme Implementation, Government of India

2. COVID-19 impact: Near-term cash flow stress expected in construction sector, says Icra Published on on 31st March, 2020.

3. COVID-19: Construction disruption across India in Q4 may hurt companies Published on on 27th March, 2020.

4. Coronavirus: Full list of services allowed in non-hotspot areas from April 20 Published on on 19th April, 2020.

bottom of page